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C A L I G U L A

The Multiple Versions


A Brief Summary of the Various Versions

# Person/s Primarily Responsible Comments Status Length
(N/A) Tinto Brass Rushes. Most survived in some form or other, and, barring deacetylation, most might still survive. 96hrs approx
(N/A) Elsa Armanni Preliminary assembly. This is not an edited or even viewable version of the movie. It is simply every potentially usable moment of every camera angle of every take, hammered together in screenplay sequence. It is not a movie. It is just a raw bunch of repeating scenes and repeating angles, from which an editor would later sculpt a movie. Ready by third week of January 1977. Original & b/w copy were further trimmed. A second color copy seems to have been made possibly as a backup. Presumed destroyed. 9hrs approx
(N/A) Unknown Second assembly. Again, this is not a movie. This is just the preliminary assembly with some of the fat trimmed away. Date unknown. Dismantled in the process of editing. 254min54sec
(1) Tinto Brass This included everything through to the end of the stadium scene (head-mower). Never polished. Edited silent, without soundtrack. Abandoned at close of workday, Friday, 15 April 1977, after a full nine weeks of editing begun on Monday, 14 February 1977. Tinto Brass arrived at work on Monday, 18 April 1977 to find that the lock had been changed, that a summons had been affixed to the door, and that his mammoth Prévost editing machine was sitting outside in the snow. Survives, incomplete, in a scrambled 16mm b/w copy. A few brief portions of 1984’s Io Caligola re-create Brass’s original cut, and this suggests that prior to the director’s cut being dismantled, someone copied it, and that Franco Rossellini came into possession of that copy as well as some discards from the negatives. 84min
(2) Russell Lloyd Rough cut completed by first week of September 1977. Dismantled. 140min approx (no credits)
(3) Russell Lloyd Revised rough cut completed by 9 November 1977. Dismantled. 140min (no credits)
(4) Russell Lloyd Included the consulship of Incitatus (in the wrong place), the massage, and the first half of the Temple of Jupiter where Caligula replaces the statues’ heads. Included the Temple of Jupiter in its entirety. The pastoral idyll was used as a prologue. Ready 30 Jan 1978. The Temple of Jupiter along with several other scenes (“You don’t exist!”) were deleted at Penthouse’s insistence. Dismantled. A b&w dupe copy seems still to survive. 151min20sec (no credits)
(5) Nino Baragli First half adapted partly from (1) above and partly from (4) above. The remainder edited afresh, minus the scenes deleted by orders of Penthouse. A temporary music track was later added, consisting of excerpts from Khachaturian and Prokofiev ballets. The music was not separated, but included on the same reels of full-coat as the duplicate of the scratch track. Mysteriously, random portions of the scratch track were erased. (For the supplementary section of the DVD and Blu-Ray, Nathaniel Thompson reconstructed what he could of the music, but portions of the scratch track itself were beyond repair.) Ready by sometime in the spring of 1978. Dismantled. Only fragments survive. 160min? approx (no credits)
(6) Nino Baragli Baragli’s final version, with the bedroom scene (did you see their faces, guards, dispute over land) in sequence and complete except for the ending back in bed, which is missing everywhere except in the recent DVD supplements. Massage deleted. Consulship of Incitatus deleted. The momentary shot of Cæsonia silently gloating when Caligula slaps Drusilla was deleted. Included the temporary music cues used in (5). It was probably for this version that the Sacred Dance of Isis was first abridged severely. Prepared by June or early July 1978. Survives on a series of three battered 60-minute ¾" U-Matic cassettes. It was briefly available for download. 152min approx (no credits)
(7) Peter Krook Dubbing print adapted from (6) above, minus all the Guccione/Lui hardcore footage. When screened privately for Malcolm McDowell and Masolino d’Amico prior to dubbing, it included the temporary music cues used in (5) & (6). Prepared by early July 1978. The dubbing script suggests that the massage scene was dubbed as well, even though it was never to be reinstated in the workprints. Dismantled. 147min approx (no credits)
(8) Peter Krook Same as (7) above, but fully dubbed and with the Guccione/Lui hardcore put back in. An earlier, much longer version of Sacred Dance of Isis was undoubtedly reinstated for this version. At Malcolm McDowell’s suggestion, the momentary CS of Cæsonia gloating was reinstated. At Masolino d’Amico’s suggestion, a few more lines of dialogue had been written, rewritten, and dubbed (“What’s it like with Marcellus?” rather than “What’s it like with your husband?” “Now send the rest to Livia,” etc). The sound was on full-coat reels. Franco Mannino’s incidental music was isolated on separate full-coat reels. Privately screened in September 1978 and instantly rejected. Does not survive. 153min approx (no credits)
(9) Giancarlo Lui,
Peter Krook
Slightly amended version of (8) above, minus the massage and with the pastoral idyll interrupting the bedroom/veranda scene (“she is to be banished to Gaul”/“you must have an heir”). This version used the scrambled/abridged Sacred Dance of Isis from (7). Finished print, but with the sound on separate full-coat reels. The temporary music cues used in (5) above were probably reinstated. If not, then this print had little or no music. Trade screened in London 13–17 Nov 1978. Cut into several pieces for the subsequent re-edit. All the image survives, but parts of the sound have gone missing. 152min approx
(10) Giancarlo Lui Basically the same as (9) above, but with the pastoral idyll moved back to the beginning as a prologue. The incidental music was by Bruno Nicolai who worked under a pseudonym. Completed in March 1979. Shown at 1st Cannes screening in May 1979, and maybe 2nd and 3rd screenings as well. Reviewed by the US Department of Justice and the US Attorney General’s Office (New York Eastern District) in April 1979. Most prints were optical monaural, but a few were 4tr-mag/op,, though with only left and right channels. The center and surround channels were empty. Released in the US 1 Feb 1980. Released in Vancouver BC in July 1981. 4tr-mag prints are presumed destroyed. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr) (1984 home video time-compressed to 148min)
(11) Giancarlo Lui Caligola. Same as (10) above, but dubbed into Italian. Ready by June 1979. Ten years later, in 1989, Felix Cinematografica issued PAL VHS screeners to potential non-Italian distributors. Never released. All 35mm prints and masters seem by now to have been destroyed — except probably for two. Some VHS screeners might still be around somewhere; bootleg copies are rare. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr) plus part titles
(12) Franco Rossellini et al Caligola. Same as (11) above, but with about 90 seconds (135') deleted at Rossellini’s instructions. Presumed lost. 154min23sec (13,895') plus part titles
(13) Franco Rossellini et al Caligola. Same as (12) above, but with a further deletions. Ministero del Turismo e dello Spettacolo then ordered a further 16m (35sec) deleted from the lesbian scene. Contracted 10 Jul 1979, submitted for identification 19 Jul 1979. Presumed lost. 151min19sec (4151m) including part titles
(14) Franco Rossellini et al Caligola. Same as (13) above, but with the further 35 seconds (52.5' or 16m) deleted from the lesbian scene by order of the Ministero del Turismo e dello Spettacolo. Registered 24 Jul 1979. Presumed lost. 150min44sec (4135m) including part titles
(15) Franco Rossellini et al Caligola. Same as (14) above, but with a further 3min20sec (300') deleted without explanation. Premièred at the Cinema Nuovo in Meldola on 14 Aug 1979 and released throughout Italy on 10 Nov 1979. Presumed destroyed, though DVD’s were made of dupe copies that seem to have vanished. 147min24sec including part titles
(16) Unknown Expanded from (10) above. Special print for trade shows, with a further 14 minutes of hardcore additions. Possibly shown at 2nd and/or 3rd screenings at Cannes in May 1979. Dates undetermined, but it could have been shown in the US at least as early as May 1979 and there was at least one showing in Hollywood sometime between January and April 1980. Presumed lost. 169min51sec (4,650m)
(17) Unknown Same as (10) above, dubbed into German, but with six minutes deleted by order of the state censor. Released on 25 Apr 1980. 149min36sec (4104m)
(18) Unknown French dub of (10) above. Never released to cinemas. Released on VHS and DVD but with a few errors. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr)
(19) Unknown editor
under the
supervision of
Paul Rassam
Abridgment of (18) above, shortened partly to avoid the extra VAT charged to violent programs, but mostly to squeeze in a fourth daily screening. Released 2 Jul 1980. 136min22sec (3741m)
(20) Unknown editor
under the
supervision of
James Ferman
Adapted from (10) above. Fourteen minutes were deleted by order of the state censor. Much of that footage was replaced by tamer material. (20) and its derivatives including (23) contain a few moments not included in any other version. Released in the UK 30 Oct 1980. 149min35sec (13,462')
(21) Unknown Same as (10) above, dubbed into Japanese, but with about 350 foggings. Released in Japan 21 Nov 1980. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr)
(22) Unknown Québec version. Same as (10) and possibly (18) above, but with three minutes cut. Released in a French dub and later in English with French subtitles 20 Feb 1981. 153min
(23) Unknown “Modified Version.” Same as (20) above, but with one shot deleted from the Imperial Bordello scene. (23), like (20) and its derivatives, contains a few moments not included in any other version. Released in Australia 19 Jun 1981. 149min30sec
(24) Unknown Alberta version. Same as (20) above, but with one minute cut. Released 9 Oct 1981. 148min
(25) Unknown Ontario version. Same as (20) above, but with several cuts. Released 9 Oct 1981. 148min?
(26) Nino Baragli Abridgment of (10) above for general US release, with replacement footage not seen in any previous version. See “Marketing Sanitized Caligula as an ‘R’ in 170 Situations,” Variety (weekly), 21 Oct 1981. Never released. Lost. 117min approx
(27) Nino Baragli R-rated version. Abridgment of (26) above for general US release. Cut by the simple expedient of deleting everything between Cæsonia’s dance and the birth of Julia — except for one shot, namely, the crowd holding vigil in the Baths of Caracalla. That originally introduced the scene of Caligula deathly ill in bed. Now it inexplicably introduces the birth of Julia. Missing are Caligula’s illness (stable and bedroom), ratifying legislation in Longinus’s office, and the execution of Proculus. Some or all of the unique replacement footage from (26) is retained, never to be used again in any other version. Opened beginning 16 Oct 1981 in the Eastern States, and beginning 5 Feb 1982 on the West Coast. Several 35mm prints are in the hands of private collectors. 105min47sec (1984 home video time-compressed to 100min46sec)
(28) Unknown Manitoba version. Same as (20) above, but with two minutes cut. Released 22 Jan 1982. 147min
(29) Franco Rossellini, Enzo Natale, Enzo Micarelli Io Caligola, adapted from (1) and (10) above, with some footage restored, many deletions, and a few attempts to repair the editing. Presumably all of the Guccione/Lui “additional” footage was deleted, but that is not certain. Newly dubbed into Italian, with mostly different music. Ready by late 1983. Never released. Destroyed. 147min38sec (4050m) including part titles
(30) Franco Rossellini, Enzo Natale, Enzo Micarelli Io Caligola. Same as (29) above, but with further deletions. All of Guccione/Lui’s “additional” footage was deleted. According to ANICA this was released to cinemas under visa number 79492. Released in Rome and Milan 31 Mar 1984 and the rest of Italy at the beginning of Apr, but was almost instantly sequestered. After court clearance it was re-released in September 1984. Released on VHS without proper license by Universal and Skorpion. All 35mm materials by now presumed destroyed. 124min43sec (3421m) including part titles (overspeeded to 119min for video)
(31) Franco Rossellini, Enzo Natale, Enzo Micarelli Io Caligola. Same as (30) above, but with further deletions ordered by the state censor. To all appearances this was appealed, and (30) was released instead. Never released, possibly never even completed. 118min15sec (3243m) including part titles
(32) Unknown Mida Film (subsidiary of The Universal Video Srl) VHS version, unlicensed. Same as (30) above, but with portions of the sequestered (11) and/or (12) above illegally reinstated. Unusually, this video includes part titles, though not the genuine ones. These part titles were video-generated. This was also issued at the same time by Edizioni Eden, which seems to have been the “adult” subsidiary of U.Mida Films, with the “U” seemingly standing for “Universal.” Released sometime in 1987. 135min overspeeded to 130min including part titles
(33) Unknown Felix Cinematografica Srl prepared a new internegative of the uncut English-language version by May 1987, which was ready for delivery within a few months of that. Interestingly, this had altered credits that deleted every mention of Guccione and Penthouse. This may have been released on video in Greece, Portugal (Filmitalus Ltda), Spain (Civite S.A.), Brazil (Rede Nacional de Filmes Nacionais Ltda), and Hong Kong (Filmax). It may have been released to cinemas in India (Shailesh Shah Inc). It was definitely released in Scandinavia (Scanbox A-B-Collection). Briefly on VHS. 35mm prints presumed destroyed. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr)
(34) Unknown Felix Cinematografica Srl also prepared a “soft” English-language version with the same altered credits. This was based on (33). It was completed by May 1987 and seems to have been released to cinemas in Chile in late 1989 (Inter Films) and México in autumn 1990 (Producciones Carlos Amador S.A.). It seems also to have been released on video and at cinemas in Scandinavia in autumn 1990 (Scanbox A-B-Collection), simultaneously with the long version. Briefly on VHS. Film materials presumed destroyed. 120min
(35) Unknown More surprisingly, Felix Cinematografica Srl also prepared an “edited-for-television” edition, which was ready by May 1989. This was apparently based upon (34). Never released, presumed destroyed. Unknown
(36) Unknown Twentieth-Anniversary “Digitally Remastered & Fully Resorted” version. Same as (10) above, but printed from inferior materials, and with the mono of the original release synthesized to Dolby 5.1. The line “Not enjoying the emperor’s games?” became almost inaudible. Guccione’s promise to restore about 12 minutes of previously unseen material could not be fulfilled, as the negatives had been destroyed and the soundtrack had never been prepared. Released in the US 17 Sep 1999. 155min52sec (14,029'+07fr)
(37) Alan Roberts, Mark Kermode FilmFour version. Same as (10) above, but with overscanning to remove objectionable images and with the hardcore footage deleted as well as some softer material. Exists only on video. First screened on cable television 31 Oct 1999. 142min overspeeded to 137min
(38) Unknown “Rated Version,” released on DVD in Nov 1999 and transmitted by Cinemax beginning in February 2000. Same as (10) above, with cuts approximating (26) above, but without any replacement footage. Later released under the erroneous appellation “Theatrical Version” for the UK Imperial Edition in Sep 2008. 102min
(39) Unknown Newly certificated edition for the Province of Ontario, derived from (10) but with 10 cuts. Certificated 10 Feb 2000. Unknown
(40) Unknown 35mm print shown at MALBA (Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires). Here is what a correspondent told us:
“The version screened appears to be the 156' edit, albeit with some audible differences (which are also in the R-Rated edit):
• Further laughter from Tiberius when he leaves the pool.
• Claudius’s grimace before Tiberius’s murder is almost inaudible.
• Chærea shouting ‘guards!’ before Claudius is crowned is almost inaudible.
And although the print is very splicy, some changes appear to be intentional, as some explicit content (homosexual guards, Ennia’s slaves, Anneka’s big scene at the ship, etc) is cut. It’s bewildering, since the lesbian scene, Proculus’s death, the killing machine and other such moments are left untouched.”
  Unknown
(41) Nathaniel Thompson Supplement to the “Imperial Edition” includes what is called the “Pre-Release” version. This began as a restoration of (9) above. Once the restoration was largely complete, an attempt was made to correct a few of the mistakes that had been present in all previous release versions, and a further attempt was made to delete Guccione/Lui’s footage wherever identifiable, some of which was replaced by previously unseen footage. Because much of the sound was degraded or missing, it was largely jettisoned and the image was synchronized with the mag master of (10) above as best as could be done. The mag master of (10) was two-channel in reels 1–14 and single-channel in reels 15–16. Exists only on video. Released on DVD in 2 Oct 2007. Some additional materials that could not be reinstated into the movie in time for the deadline were included as supplements. 153min
(42) Nathaniel Thompson Blu-Ray of the above “Imperial Edition.” Identical to (40) except for a few changes to the Imperial Bordello scene, which includes a few more snippet’s of Tinto Brass’s original footage to replace redundancies and 16mm footage that were included in the DVD. Exists only on video. Released on Blu-Ray on 4 Nov 2008. 153min

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